In the majority of Canyons in NZ, you will be required to construct your own natural anchors. It is well outside the scope of this website to teach you how to make your own anchors, a skill that must be learnt from someone who is experienced and preferably qualified. There is a wealth of information published by the climbing and caving communities that can serve as back ground reading and study notes to any course or instruction by an expert.
Remember, you are trusting your LIFE to the anchor, so you MUST carry enough of the right material and know how to properly create the anchor, or, how to inspect any anchor that may already be in place.
Bolts are present in a few canyons in NZ. The Canyon Bolting Guideline been developed by the NZ Canyoning community to provide guidance to anyone considering placing bolts in NZ Canyons.
It provides guidance on the legal, moral and technical standards for bolting. The guideline references DOC policy, international best practise and New Zealand Alpine Club guidance.
Any Bolts or Anchors fixed in a canyon MUST be inspected carefully prior to use. Bolts especially are difficult to properly inspect, and can be mistakenly trusted by the inexperienced even if they are not safe. Before you lead a trip where bolts may be present, you must learn from an expert, how to evaluate the safety and security of climbing bolts. You may not know who placed the bolt or how solid the bolt is. Certainly, most bolts in the outdoors are not inspected by anyone, so ALL BOLTS should be treated with suspicion.